Architecture for Liturgy II

Second LIturgy Week

anticipated to be held in
January 2021

venue yet to be determined

About the Liturgy Weeks

Celebrating liturgy involves bodily actions that narrate the mysteries celebrated. This bodily narration determines not only the functional aspects of church design, but even more importantly, the inner dimensions inherent in the ritual narrative are expressed outwardly through an artistic program well integrated into the architectural design and arrangement of churches.

Much attention is given to the design of functional and even transcendent buildings, but insufficient attention has been given to developing a prolonged ritual narration whose every element expresses in synthesis the whole mystery celebrated by rites, symbols and texts proper to each element, all of which is determinative of the design and arrangement of church buildings and their artistic programs.

The First Liturgy Week Architecture for Liturgy I  begins with a pictorial journey through the ancient basilicas of Rome. Next, we consider several different arrangements for churches that arose during the discussions held at the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). From these we shall consider the three primary human experiences and their respective places: personal illumination with light in the baptistery and font, ongoing maturation by the word in the hall and at the ambo, interpersonal communion through consummation at the dais and altar-ciborium. Both liturgy weeks include visits to selected churches with guided discussions on the liturgical principles realized, and not yet fully realized.

The Second Liturgy Week Architecture for Liturgy II  begins with the liturgical renewal under Pope Pius II. This is followed by the  distinction between allegory and sacramental symbol. Most of the week is spent considering the inner dynamics of liturgy according to four pairs: memorial-imitation, presentation-invocation, moral and eternal life, sharing in divine life. An interlude follows on the place of the tabernacle. The goal of both liturgy weeks is the development of a “Ritual Model”, which consists of the liturgical principles guiding the ritual celebration of liturgy and the expression of its inner meaning through artistic programs integrated into the architectural design of a church.

Liturgy Week 1 and 2 are designed for:

⋅ Parish planning groups preparing to renovate or build a church or chapel,
⋅ Architects and artists seeking a commission for a renovated or new church,
⋅ Architects wishing to design a building that supports a fuller ritual narrative and integrates better its artistic program,
⋅ Artists seeking inspiration from dimensions inherent to the bodily celebration of rites for more integrated and fuller artistic programs,
⋅ Diocesan directors of offices of worship or commissions that govern the building or renovation of churches,
⋅ Pastors wishing a more universal, historical and thus catholic perspective for the design phase of building or renovating a church.
⋅ Liturgists wishing to develop the ritual narration of celebrating liturgy,
⋅ Ecumenical partners seeking our common tradition, sharing the recent liturgical renewal and considering our differentiated practices.

The presentations are clear, given in ordinary language for the informed person and are richly illustrated by pictorial journeys. This accessibility gives direct and immediate access to the inner dimensions of liturgical celebrations.

Learning Goals – Week 2

Participants will come to understand the conversation surrounding the Second Vatican Council about different arrangements of churches for the celebration of liturgy.

Participants will learn to evaluate the pastoral benefits and the ritual limitations of each arrangement.

Participants will further consider the ritual model as a more comprehensive synthesis of the benefits of these various arrangements and learn to evaluate the design of any specific based on this ritual model. This was first presented in Liturgy Week 2015.

Participants will learn the four interpretative keys and learn to perceive these in any liturgical action.

Participants will understand the many different ways in which these four interpretative keys intrensic to the rite are expressed in the artistic narrative and the architectural design of a church.

Participants will visit three different churches and discuss the arrangement of each church in light of the discussion surrounding Vatican II. They will interpret the arrangement of each in light of the four interpretative keys.

Drawing on the presentation given in the first week, participants will distinguish the allegorical elements of a church from the four interpretative keys.

Participants will learn to describe how the dimensions inherent in the celebration of liturgy are expressed in the three dimensions of space in a church and the dimension of time throughout a day, season, year.

Participants will be introduced to the ritual model developed from the work of Prof. em. Crispino Valenziano which can help them articulate a full synthesis of action, art and architecture capable of supporting a more prolonged narrative in the liturgical celebration.

Participants will be ready to develop a fuller celebration of liturgy by developing a fuller artistic narrative and architectural design and arrangement.

Monday, 18 January 2021

Image of the altar and ciborium of San Clemente, Rome - Architecture for liturgyPian Renewal of Liturgy

In 1948 Pope Pius XII established a commission of the Vatican Congregation of Rites to consider the fundamental principles of a liturgical reform yet to be proposed, and then to carry out that reform of liturgical books culminating in 1962 with the beginning of the Second Vatican Council. Because liturgy is an organic whole, any reform of liturgy, they reasoned, must be organic, that is based on fundamental principles that renew the whole system from the roots up, as an organism in all its structures and parts. From the renewed liturgy the place of celebration is to be renewed as an organic system, its arrangement, artistic narrative and architectural design. This week will begin with a brief presentation of the work of this commission of Pope Pius XII and culminate with a presentation of such a “Ritual Model”.

Four interpretative keys

Much of this week will be devoted to understanding four interpretative keys which are inherent in every liturgical action. These inner dimensions of ritual narration are expressed outwardly in the artistic program of a church so that we can see, encounter and reflect upon these dynamics which are happening within us as we celebrate liturgy. The architectural design of a church is intended to support this ritual narrative with its intrensic dimensions, and the cosmic context of a church is provided by sunlight moving through the church throughout the course of a day.

These four interpretative keys are developed from the presentation on Liturgical Hermeneutics given by Prof. Renato de Zan at the Pontifical Institute of Liturgy, Rome and developed by Fr Daniel in collaboration with his colleague Fr James Leachman of Ealing Abbey, London. 

In our book Transition in the Easter VigilBecoming Christians (link) we say that liturgy is celebrated by people who are 1) personally 2) active 3) here and 4) now. These simple key words are associated with their technical terminology in the following:

active (anàmnesis, “memorial”),
here (epiclèsis, “invocation”),
now (eschatology, “the full-filling”),
personal (theosis, “personal freedom in the mutual exchange of love”).

After the brief introduction to the work of the Pian commission, both presentations on Monday morning are dedicated to an understanding of the first of these interpretative keys, “active”, known also by its technical term anàmnesis, “memorial”. This key helps us to understand how the saving mysteries especially in the life of Christ are active in the celebration of liturgy, both in the ritual program and in the narration of the saving works of God. Specific applications will be made to different ways in which the art of a church both supports the ritual program and narrates the saving works of God. In order to do this, we shall first clarify the fundamental distinction between allegory and memorial.

Allegory – Memorial

We shall begin with a consideration of allegory as seen in the work of William Durandus, bishop of Mende, France in the thirteenth-century, whose work Rationale Divinorum Officorum represents the height of allegorical interpretation of liturgy. We shall consider how allegory works by establishing a one to one correspondence between some word or words of scripture considered not in their own original context, but combined and reinterpreted to shed light on a highly specific, usually external aspect of liturgy. We shall consider the value and the limitations of the allegorical method of interpreting liturgy even in our present day.

We shall distinguish allegory from memorial as an interpretative key. Our consideration of memorial is based on the work of Dom Gregory Dix, Priest of the Church of England and monk of the former Nashdom Abbey whose seminal work The Shape of the Liturgy has found a reception in the “General Introduction of the Roman Missal”. Building upon his work we shall consider the further contribution of Fr.. E. Mazza, Prof. em. of Eucharist at the Pontifical Institute of Liturgy from his as of yet not translated volume Continuità e discontinuità. Finally we shall consider the contribution of Fr. Renato De Zan, Prof. of liturgical hermeneutics at the Pontifial Institute of Liturgy whose presentation on Anànmnesis, ”memorial”, is yet to be pubished in full.

The distinction between allegory and memorial helps architects and artists gain greater mastery over when they wish to base their work on allegory and and will prevent them from being limited by the use of allegory by developing their work more fully along the lines of memorial which is more adequate to the sacramental celebration. The contribution of Prof. De Zan will help equip architects and artists with the tools necessary for expressing outwoard in art and architecture this intrensic quality of all liturgical ritual. The contribution of Prof. em. Crispino Valenziano given in the First Liturgy Week will help the architect and artist understand the baptismal font, the ambo and the altar with its ciborium as memorials of the saving works of God in the sacraments.

Afternoon visit to the Neocatechumenal Seminary

This seminary chapel follows the canon for designing a chapel for use of followers of the Neocatechumenal way. The arrangement is based on the allegory of the human body whereby the chair of the presdier with the benches of the clergy occupy the place of the head of the body. Immediately in front of the presidential chair is the lectern, holding the place of the mouth of the human body. In front of the lectern is the altar, holding the place of the heart of the human body. Perhaps because this is a seminary chapel, there is no baptismal pool which would be located in front of the altar, thereby holding the place of the womb of the human body where Christians are born. The Easter candle is also located next to the font, as it is dipped into the font fo make its waters fruitful during the Easter vigil. The limits of this allegorical arrangement will also be considered.

Afternoon presentation by one of the participants

One or more of the participants in the liturgy week are invited to give a presentation of a church or work of art. We shall use the tools learned thus far to assess the church or work of art for its use in liturgy. This assessment includes from the First Liturgy Week the three primary elements developed by Prof. em. Crispino Valenziano:

  1. Personal illumination celebrated at the font in the light of the baptistery
  2. Onoging maturation upon hearing the word proclaimed from the ambo located in the nave
  3. Interpersonal communion by consumating our union in sharing communion in the body and blood of Christ from the altar with its ciborium, standing on the dais.

This assessment continues with the different arrangements of a church coming from the discussions in preparation for and during the Second Vatican Council and its consequent liturgical renewal. These include:

  1. Facing the people
  2. Centre thrust stage
  3. Communio Räume ( )
  4. Standing around a central altar
  5. Table of the word – Eucharistic banquet table
  6. Two part structue of the Mass: the liturgy of the word at the ambo and chairs, eucharistic liturgy at the altar.
  7. Ritual model

The assessment includes considerations on the placement of reservation of the Blessed Sacrament.

Finally, the assessment continues with today’s distinction of allegory from memorial and the two elements of memorial: the ritual program and the narration of the saving works of God.

Tuesday, 19 January 2021

baptistry, Visitation Parish - Architecture for liturgyMemorial in ritual narration, artistic program and architectural design

The first presentation on Tuesday continues the discussion of anànmensis or memorial with specific application to ritual, art and architecture.

Here: invocation of the Holy Spirit – epiclèsis

The second of these interpretative keys, “here”, technically known as epiclèsis, “invocation” is expressed architecturally in the altar with its ciborium (baldachin) arching over it. Reviewing its historical development we shall consider that at an early stage of development the Holy Spirit was invoked upon the gifts of bread and wine so that all who share in them may be one spirit, one body in Christ. This understanding lies at the origin of our current eucharistic prayer II.

The invocation of the Holy Spirit to change us is paired with the initial presentation of ourselves before God both in our dignity as the body of Christ and in our need to be changed. The pairing of presentation of ourselves before God with the invocation of God to change us sets up a double procession which leads toward an encounter: prompted by the Spirit we go to meet Christ the one coming. This double procession leading to the divine-human encounter is expressed outwardly in the architectural design of a church and in its artistic program.

The Roman Canon, our Eucharistic Prayer I, does not refer to the Holy Spirit until the final doxology. Once the text of the prayer became fixed early in its development, later insights on the role of the Holy Spirit in liturgy had to be expressed in other ways. One such was is the baldachin or ciborium rising over the altar. Very often these have an image of a dove located at the intersection of the vaulting in the ceiling, hovering directly over the gifts of bread and wine placed direclty below on the altar. This is the image of the Holy Spirit of God hovering over the waters of creation in Genesis.

As the Holy Spirit hovers over the gifts of bread and wine placed on the altar below, so the dome or crossing of a church hovers over the assembly, the body of Christ gathered below. In the reform after the Second Vatican Council it was no longer necessary to create a baldachin or ciobrium or tester over the altar. As these expressions of the Spirit hovering over the gifts below were abandoned, in very many churches the altar was moved to stand in the center under the dome or the crossing of the church, thereby usurping the architectural design of the dome or crossing as an expression of the Holy Spirit hovering over the assembly, the body of Christ gathered below.

Visit to a parish church

Presentation at the church

 

presentation by an architect or artist

 

During the evening, a designated architect will present a particular project for discussion. Volunteers are appreciated.

 

Wednesday 20 January 2016

 

image of the ambo of Santa Maria in Cosmedin - Architecture for liturgy

 

Summary and Response

 

Each morning we shall begin with summaries to the previous day’s presentations and responses given by two participants designated on the previous day. Volunteers are appreciated.

 

Liturgical theology in ritual, art and architecture II

 

First presentation: The second of these interpretative keys, “here”, technically known as epiclèsis, “invocation” is expressed architecturally in the altar with its ciborium (baldachin) arching over it. This key also helps us to understand much of the processional narrative of liturgy, of the double procession toward an encounter. Once again the artistic design supports the processional nature of liturgy in several ways and gives outward expression to its intrinsic meaning.

 

Second presentation: We shall consider two related keys, both “now” and “personal” because both consider the process of human maturation and transformation from two distinct perspectives. The key we simplify as “now” is technically known as eschatology and considers the full glory of humanity already being revealed in us as we live by ultimate values.

 

The fourth interpretative key is “personal”, whose technical term is theàndric. The term refers to the union of divinity (theos) and humanity (aner) in Jesus Christ and concerns our personal transformation as we come to share in divine life.

 

One of the architectural and artistic expressions of these two interpretative keys is the axis mundi, “pole of the earth”, also called the umbilicus, “naval” of the world.

 

Afternoon Visit to a parish church

 

The specific church will be determined in discussion with Leon Roberts and participants. I suggest we visit one ideal church and one problematic church so that we might discuss both in light of the presentations.

 

Presentation at the church

 

Given by Fr. Daniel. The topic will be determined based on the church we visit.

 

Evening presentation by an architect or artist

 

During the evening, a designated architect will present a particular project for discussion. Volunteers are appreciated.

 

Thursday 21 January 2016

 

Image of the altar and ciborium in the Cathedral of St Lawrence, Trapani, Sicily - Architecture for liturgySummary and Response

 

Each morning we shall begin with summaries to the previous day’s presentations and responses given by two participants designated on the previous day. Volunteers are appreciated.

 

First presentation
Reservation

 

The diocesan bishop may give specific directions on the placement of a tabernacle in a church. This presentation seeks to provide a broad historical overview of the reservation of the Blessed Sacrament in a church as well as a liturgical ritual involved in reservation of the Blessed Sacrament. The presentation will include a consideration of the developing presences of Christ in the liturgical ritual, culminating in the sharing of communion, from which some portion is reserved for those absent and especially as food for the dying; hence providing a place of devotion.

 

First presentation
Movement of the Sun

 

Discussions about celebrating mass ad orientem, “toward the East”, or about orienting churches are often reduced to the simple question about which side of the altar the priest stands on for the eucharistic liturgy. Does the priest face toward the people or with the people.

 

This presentation is intended to move beyond a reductive dichotomy to a greater integration of the fundamental principles involved. I begin by tracing the historical development of churches in Rome and consider both the alignment of the nave and the position of the presider at the altar. I distinguish the Roman situation from that of Constantinople and later developments for example during the Ottonian era (900s). I trace the dissolution of the initial, Roman practices during the time of the mendicants with the development of the reredos (1200s); at the time of the Avignon papacy and return to the Vatican (1300s); and leading up to the Council of Trent. I trace the shifting directionality of the presider at the altar and of the altar itself and the nave. I explore the various directions people face in more fully developed ambos as at San Clemente, Rome, for the epistle, graduale and gospel. I trace the ever more reductive posture of the priest at the altar in successive editions of the Missal of Pius V. In this context I situate the desire expressed at Vatican II that the priest face the people.

 

Second presentation
Ritual model

 

Based on the pastoral concern expressed at Vatican II and in its reform of the liturgy, I wish to explore a more nuanced and expressive arrangement for the current liturgy. It is based on the movement of the Sun from sunrise to midday to sunset. From these, three axes are developed: one from sunrise to sunset, one from the midday sun to the darkness, one from the sun’s apex to its nadir. These three axes situate cosmically both a church building and the liturgical rituals, especially the processions. Rather than limit the discussion to one pattern, any number of arrangements may be developed in different ways ever keeping in mind the movement of the sun in the church throughout the course of the day when considering the movement of processions during the liturgy and the narration of the iconographic program.

 

Returning to the discussion of the ritual model given in the first year, I shall give a fuller presentation that incorporates the discussion at Vatican II and the pairs of dynamics inherent in liturgical celebration. The ritual model will be presented as a way to preserve pastoral values while moving beyond the weaknesses of two common arrangements of church sanctuaries, one a center thrust stage, the other the ‘communion place’ (communio raüme).

 

The liturgical-theological dimension of the liturgy as memorial finds expression in the design and placement of altars. The role of the Holy Spirit in all liturgical prayer is projected in the architecture of the ciborium or baldachin.

 

Reclaiming the altar-ciborium combination from Roman examples would help in developing different places for the altar, ambo and chair, in contrast to the center-thrust sanctuary common in more recently built or renovated churches. Presentation given by Fr Daniel, 8:30-10:00 in the Abbey crypt.

 

 

 

Afternoon Visit to a parish church

 

The specific church will be determined in discussion with Leon Roberts and participants. I suggest we visit one ideal church and one problematic church so that we might discuss both in light of the presentations.

 

Presentation at the church

 

Given by Fr. Daniel. The topic will be determined based on the church we visit.

 

Concluding comments at 4:30 will precede departure by 5:00.

 

Monday,
20 Jan 2020
Tuesday,
21 Jan 2020
Wednesday,
22 Jan 2020
Thursday,
23 Jan 2020
Friday,
24 Jan 2020
This is a proposed schedule yet to be confirmed in its details.8:30-10:00
Lecture: Fr. Daniel:
Vatican II arrangements
8:30-10:00
Lecture: Fr. Daniel:
Thought of Valenziano.
Baptistery & font
8:30-10:00
Lecture: Fr. Daniel:
Altar - Ciborium
8:30-10:00
Lecture: Fr. Daniel:
reservation
10:00-10:20
Refreshments
10:00-10:20
Refreshments
10:00-10:20
Refreshments
10:00-10:20
Refreshments
Morning: Arrival10:20-11:30
Lecture: Fr. Daniel:
Vatican II arrangements
10:20-11:30
Lecture: Fr. Daniel:
The ambo
10:20-11:30
Lecture: Fr. Daniel:
Vertical axis
10:20-11:30
Lecture: Fr. Daniel:
Ritual model

11:30-11:45
Certificates
11:45-12:45
Lunch, Cafeteria
11:45-12:45
Lunch, Cafeteria
11:45-12:45
lunch, Cafeteria
11:45-12:45
Lunch, Cafeteria
11:45-12:45
lunch, Cafeteria
Afternoon
1:00 welcome
1:15-2:15
Lecture: Fr. Daniel: Roman Basilicas
2:15-2:35 refreshments
2:35-3:35
Lecture cont.
3:35-4:00 refreshments
4:00-5:00
lecture cont.
Afternoon
1:00 depart for visit to Our Lady of Loreto Parish, 18000 E. Arapahoe Rd., Foxfield, Colorado 80016
303-766-3800
www.ourladyofloreto.org

Personal time
Lecture: Fr. Daniel
Refreshments
guided tour
Afternoon
1:00 depart for visit to Most Precious Blood Parish, 3959 E. Iliff Ave., Denver, Colorado 80210
303-756-3083
www.mpbdenver.org

Personal time
Lecture: Fr. Daniel
Refreshments
guided tour
Afternoon
1:00 depart for visit to Holy Ghost Parish, 1900 California St., Denver, Colorado 80202
(303) 292-1556
www.holyghostchurch.org

Personal time
Lecture: Fr. Daniel
Refreshments
guided tour
supper, cafeteria
(time to be determined)

6:30-7:30
visit chapel of SJV Seminary nearby
6:00-7:00
supper, cafeteria
6:00-7:00
supper, cafeteria
6:00-7:00
supper, cafeteria
7:00-8:00
Church visit
Personal time
Lecture: Fr. Daniel
7:00-8:00
Participant presentation
7:00-8:00
Participant presentation
7:00-8:00
Participant presentation

Fr Daniel McCarthy, OSB, SLD

Fr Daniel is a monk of St Benedict’s Abbey, Atchison, Kansas. In 2008 he earned a Doctorate in Sacred Liturgy (SLD) studying church architecture at the Pontifical Institute of Liturgy at Sant’Anselmo, Rome. His doctoral thesis traces the historical development of the presidential chair (the chair the priest sits in for Mass). Because the chair is the weaker element compared to the altar and ambo (or lectern), his research required developing an understanding of the interrelationships of all these elements in the overall design of a church. While pursuing these studies, Fr Daniel studied with Prof em. Crispino Valenziano.

Fr Daniel is an instructor at the Pontifical Institute of Liturgy, at Sant’Anselmo, Rome where he also participates in the Master’s degree program on Architecture and Arts for Liturgy. (also offered in English) He is a guest professor at the Catholic University Leuven, in Belgium, where he serves on the editorial board of Questions Liturgiques / Studies in Liturgy. He is co-founder and instructor of liturgy and the Latin language at the Liturgy Institute London, at Ealing Abbey. Fr Daniel has published with Fr James Leachman a volume on ritual, art and architecture called Come Into the Light. Fr Daniel is currently amplifying his doctoral research and preparing it for publication in English under the title Verbum ac Spiritus. He is also preparing the presentations given in these two liturgy weeks Architecture for Liturgy 1 and 2 for publication.

Fr Daniel served as an advisor to Vox clara, a working committee of the Vatican Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments. He publishes with Fr Reginald Foster a series on teaching the Latin language. The first volume is Ossa Latinitatis SolaThe Mere Bones of Latin. Their second volume Ossium carnes multae: The Bones Meats Abundant on the letters of Cicero to friends and family is due to be available in 2020.

Fr Daniel holds the following degrees:

S.L.D, Doctorate in Sacred Liturgy, Pontifical Liturgy Institute, Sant’Anselmo 2008,
S.L.L, License in Sacred Liturgy, Pontifical Liturgy Institute, Sant’Anselmo,
M.A. specializing in liturgy from the Notre Dame summer program, 1999,
M.Div. from St John’s Seminary, Collegeville, Minnesota where he studied under the church designer Frank Kasmarcik,
B.A. from Benedictine College, Atchison Kansas, 1985.

REGISTRATION:
Online registration is made by filling out this form provided by the Catholic Archdiocese of Denver. You may also view the web-page prepared by the Archdiocese here

You may register by sending in your information and mail payment by check to:
Archdiocese of Denver: 2020 Architecture for Liturgy Conference
1300 S. Steele Street
Denver, CO 80210
USA

REGISTRATION FEE: $400, includes:

  • Cost of Course
  • Lunch: Monday – Friday
  • Dinner: Monday – Thursday

Because this experience is of a whole, it is preferable that participants attend all the presentations. Thus, no discount is given for those who cannot attend the entire experience.

Registration closes on December 16, 2019

Location: the course will be held at the JP II Center
1300 S. Steele Street
Denver, CO 80210

HOTEL:  Reservations can be made at the

Hyatt Place Denver Cherry Creek Hotel
4150 East Mississippi Avenue
Glendale, CO 80246

Conference Room Rate: $124.00 per night (includes continental breakfast)
This special rate is available for 4 nights (January 20 – 23, with checkout on January 24).
Group Name: TBD
Group Code: TBD

Priests can either stay at the hotel or contact John Miller (john.miller AT archden DOT org) for accommodation at the Archdiocese of Denver.

A map … is available.

For more information or for any special requests (e.g. dietary requirements), please contact John Miller at:
john.miller AT archden DOT org. 

AIRPORT:  The Denver International Airport web-page is here.

The following volume is recommended to accompany the presentations:

Come into the Light:
Church interiors for the celebration of liturgy

by

Daniel P. McCarthy osb
James G. Leachman osb

published by Canterbury Press, Norwich 2016.
Available via Amazon.com.

A secondary resource has several images of the ambo of Santa Sabina, Rome, with explanations:

cover of the book: LIsten to the WordMcCarthy, D.P. – J.G. Leachman, Listen to the Word: Commentaries on Selected Opening Prayers of Sundays and Feasts with Sample Homilies (DREI, Varia), The Tablet Trust, London 2009.

Available through the gift shop of St. Benedict’s Abbey, Atchison, in person or online here.

Note, the publisher has not made this volume available on amazon.com, where it is sold by resellers at vast mark-up.

A fuller bibliography intended to accompany the Liturgy Week is available on the bibliography page of this web-site.

Week I

The First Liturgy Week Architecture for Liturgy I  begins with a pictorial journey through the ancient basilicas of Rome. Next, we consider several different arrangements for churches that arose during the discussions held at the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). From these we shall consider the three primary human experiences and their respective places: personal illumination with light in the baptistery and font, ongoing maturation by the word in the hall and at the ambo, interpersonal communion through consummation at the dais and altar-ciborium. Both liturgy weeks include visits to selected churches with guided discussions on the liturgical principles realized, and not yet fully realized.

Week II

The Second Liturgy Week Architecture for Liturgy II  begins with the liturgical renewal under Pope Pius II. This is followed by the  distinction between allegory and sacramental symbol. Most of the week is spent considering the inner dynamics of liturgy according to four pairs: memorial-imitation, presentation-invocation, moral and eternal life, sharing in divine life. An interlude follows on the place of the tabernacle. The goal of both liturgy weeks is the development of a “Ritual Model”, which consists of the liturgical principles guiding the ritual celebration of liturgy and the expression of its inner meaning through artistic programs integrated into the architectural design of a church.